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????ְҵ?????İ?ѧ???????Է???Ϊ??ּ,?Ծ?ҵΪ????,?е???Ϊ ?ִ?????????????????????ڼƵĸ??????Ͷ??ߺ?????ǧ??Ƶĸ߼???ר???˲????Ρ?ְҵ?????ǰ???????Դת??Ϊ????????,????????Դת??Ϊ??ʵ??????????Ҫ?????????,ְҵ???????????????˵ķ?չ????ҵ,??????Ӧ ??????ᷢչ?IJ???,Ҳ???????˳?????չ????Ҫ???ڶ???????ᷢչ?ռ?Ŀ?????????,ְҵ?????????Ǵٽ??˵????ɷ?չ??????;??,Ҳ?Ǵٽ??˵?ȫ?淢չ?ĸ?????????

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????ְҵ???????Գ???ھ?????DZ??,ʵ?ָ???ĸ??????ɷ?չ?????硶????-?Ƹ??̲????С?һ????????,ְҵ????“???????ǰ?????Ϊ???ù???,??????Ϊ??չ??Ŀ?ļ??ԶԴ???”,????Ҫ“ʹÿ???˵?DZ?ڲŸɺ??????õ???ַ?չ”??????,һ?????,?????ڽ???ij??ְҵ????֮ǰ,????Ȼ??????Լ?????Ȥ?????á??Ը??س?????????????ѡ???ʺ??Լ???չ??ְҵ????,??ְҵ???????????ص???????,ǡ?ܰ????????Ȥ?????á??Ը??س??????ñ?ѡרҵ,???㲻ͬ????IJ?ͬ??Ҫ??ְҵ????????????ͨ????ͬ??רҵ???֡???ͬ?Ľ???????????ʽ??????ھ??˵ĸ???DZ?ܡ?????,ְҵ????Ϊ??????и??Ի???ְҵѡ???ṩ??ǰ??Ϳ??ܡ??????????Ի?ѡ???רҵ֮??,?ܸ??õط??ӻ?????????,Ͷ?뵽רҵѧϰ????ȥ,???̶ȵ??ھ??????ط????DZ??,ʵ???Լ??ĸ??Ի???չ??

????һ?????˵????ɷ?չ??Ҫͨ???ܹ?ְҵ???????˵??Ͷ???ʵ?֡?????,ְҵ???????ʱ???????ͽ????Ļ?????ʽ,???ֹ?????ְҵ?????άϵ?Ļ????????DZ????????һ??ְҵ,???ض?ְҵ??λ֮??ʵ???䷢չ??ÿһ??ְҵ?͹???????Ҫһ???ļ?????֪ʶ,ÿһ????ҵ?͸?λ????һ????רҵ??Ҫ?ͼ??????󡣶?ְҵ???????????????Űѿ??ܵ??Ͷ???ת??Ϊ?ܹ???????????ְҵ??Ҫ????ʵְҵ?ߵ?????,????????Щ??δ?ҵ?????????ɫ???????Ͷ???,ְҵ???????????????Դ???ְҵ?????ˡ?

??????һ?????˵????ɷ?չҲ???˵?ְҵ????????ͷ?ʽ?????Ҫ???˵ĸ??????ɷ?չ??ָ?˵?????˵????????˵?????ϵ????ÿ???????ϵĸ??Ի?????,??Ҫ?????˵Ķ????ԡ??????Ժʹ????Եij?ַ?չ??????????˼?Ĺ۵?,ֻ?ж???????????,ֻ?????????????ɡ????????Ե???????Ҫ?????ڶ??Լ???????Ŀ?????,“ʹ?????????Ļ?????Լ??Ŀ???”?????????????ķ?չ??????ȫ?????,?????𲽰????????????????Ժͷ?????;?????ԡ??????Ժ?ѡ???Բ?????ǿ?????,ÿ?????嶼??????Լ??ĸ??Բ?????ѡ????˷?չ?ķ???,ʹ???????Լ??????ɹ??ķ???չ????????Ȥ?????á??Ը????ʵȷ???IJ???,???????????ṹ?IJ???,?ɴ?????ɸ????????רҵ???????????ķ?Ұ,????ʹ??????ͬ??ְҵ??Ұ???????˵ķ?չ?ı?Ȼ,Ҳ????ᷢչ?ı??衣ְҵ?????????ĸ??????????ڶԲ?ͬ????ѧ???Ĺ?ע??̽??,???ڴٽ??˵?????ʵ?֡?ֻ???????˵ĸ??Ժ???Ҫ??ǿ???˵????͸??Ի?,ֻ????Ӧ???,??Ӧ???˷?չ????Ҫ,ְҵ????????ʹ?˵?DZ?ܲ??ܵõ?????ء????ɵط??ӡ? ??????ְҵ ???????˵?ȫ?? ??չ?ı?֤??ϵ

?????????ҹ?????????Ĺ涨,??ν?˵?ȫ?淢չ??ָ???ڵ¡??ǡ??塢??????????ȫ??ƽ?ⷢչ??????˹?ڡ?????????ԭ?????а?ȫ?淢չ???˶???Ϊ“?????涼??????????,????ͨ??????????ϵͳ???ˡ?”????˼????Ϊ,??νȫ?淢չ????,Ӧ????“??ͨ????Ѫ”??“???й㷺????֪ͨʶ”????,??“??һ??ȫ??ķ?ʽ”“???????????????Ͷ?”“ռ???Լ??ġ?ȫ??ġ????ʵ???”?ĸ??Ի?ó?ַ?չ?˵?“????????”??“????????”??ʵ??,???????????ĸ߶ȷ?չ, ??ѧ?????????????̵?ֱ??ͳһ,?˶? ??Ȼ ???ɵ??ܶ????պ??Ծ?????,?Լ??????????Ծ??ؿ?????Щ????Ϊǰ??ġ?Ҳ????˵Ҫ“ʵ???˵?ȫ?淢չ”,?ͱ?Ȼ“Ҫ?????ͬ????????”,??“??????????????????һ?ַ???,????Ҳ?????ȫ?淢չ???˵?Ψһ??????”?ɴ˿??Կ???,??Ϊ????????Դת??Ϊ??ʵ????????Ҫ??????ְҵ????,??ʵ????ȫ?淢չ?ĸ???;????

????ְҵ??????????ʵ???˵?ȫ?淢չ??һ??????ķ?չ??ʽ???˵?ȫ?淢չ?????ڲ?ͬ??????ʽ?еķ?չΪǰ?ᡣ?Ծ?ҵΪ???????????߼???ר???˲?Ϊ???ε?ְҵ????????ͨ????????֯???ֽ?ѧ??ʵ???,Ϊѧ???ṩһ????????ľ??鷽ʽʹ֮??????? ???û????????ĸ???ְҵ?Ͷ?????,????ʵ???˵ķ?չ??2005?꡶????Ժ???ڴ?????չְҵ?????ľ?????????ȷָ??“ְҵ????ҪΪ????Ͷ????????ر???ְҵ????????”,Ҫ“?߶?????ʵ????ʵѵ???ڽ?ѧ”,“?????г????????Ҫ,???ϸ??½?ѧ????,?Ľ???ѧ????”,??“??ǿְҵԺУѧ??ʵ????????ְҵ???ܵ?????”??ְҵ???????־???ʽ??????????,???ɻ?ʹѧ?????ٵ????????Ȼ????ְҵ?˺?????˵?ת??,??ʹ??????ռ???Լ??ı??ʶ????ȫ??ķ?չ??

????ְҵ????????Ҳ????????˼?????ͨ??????ͬ?????Ͷ???????ʵ???˵ķ?չ??ԭ???˵?ȫ?淢չ?漰????????,???????????е???Ҫ;???ͷ???????Ϊ:“??????ʹ?????˺ܿ???ܹ???Ϥ????????ϵͳ,????ʹ???Ǹ?????????Ҫ???????Լ??İ???,??????һ??????????ת????һ?????????š?”???ֽ????????Ǵ?ͳ?????ϵĽ???,???? ?ִ??????ϵ????????Ͷ????ϵ?ְҵ????,“????????????????????һ?ַ???,?????????ȫ?淢չ???˵?Ψһ????”??ְҵ?????????ȴ???????֪ʶ??չѧ??????,??ע??????????ѵ????ǿѧ????????,????Ч?ؽ???????ʵ?????????ں?????,?γ?ѧ?????ۺ?ְҵ????????????????ְ?̸ĸ﷽??Ҫ??“?ٽ?ְҵ??????ѧ??????ʵ?????????ƹ㡢????????ܽ??”,“???????й?ѧ??ϡ?У???????????ģʽ”,ʹְҵ????“?? ??ҵ??????ϵ,??ǿѧ????????ʵϰ?????ʵ??”,ͨ????????׼ְҵ?ʹѧ???????ĽӴ???Ϊ?㷺,???ϼ??????????ε???ʶ??????,???и???Ļ????????????????ʵ???Լ???ְҵ?????׷??

??????ǰ,??ᷢչ????????,??ѧ????Ѹ?ͷ?չ,??֪ʶ???¼??????з???Ӧ?õ????ڱ?̡?????Ƶ?ʼӿ?,??ᡢְҵ(Ⱥ)??????????Խ??Խ?ߵ?Ҫ??ְҵ??????????ʵ???Ľ??,?ڼ?ǿѧ??ְҵ??λ??????????ͬʱ,??????ѧ????????ְҵ????,???ս?????ݱ?Ϊ????????,??ְҵ??????չ???ۺ?????,?ɵ?һ?????ϸ???????????Ӧ???ķ?չ????ᷢչ??????Ŀ?????˵?ȫ?淢չ,ͬʱ?˵ķ?չ??????᲻?Ϸ?չ??????????????ʵ???и????ⲿ????͸???????????,??ʵ?????ʵ???˵?ȫ?淢չ??ǰ????????????????ʵ?????ϵ?ְҵ????ʹ?ý?????Ϊ????Ĺ???,??Ϊʹ?˳ɹ???????????????κ?????ְ??Ĺ??ߡ?Ҫʵ???˵?ȫ?淢չ??һ??????Զ׷???????Զû??ֹ????Ŀ??,ʵ???????????ܡ????ܡ????????????Ʒ?ʡ???С???־???Ը?ȷ??治??????????,ֻ???????ڹᴩ?˵?һ???ġ?׷???˵?ȫ???г??չ??ְҵ???????ܵ??????Ρ?

?????ο? ????:

????[1]????˼????˹ȫ??(??42??)[M].????:?????????,1998.

????[2]???Ϲ??̿?????֯??????????չίԱ??.????-?Ƹ??̲?????[M].??????ѧ??????,1996

????[3]????,??????.?ɼ???Ϊ????????????չ[J].ְҵ????????2003,(19)

????[4]?ż???,Ǯ????.ְҵ????????ѧ[M].?Ϻ?:????ʦ????ѧ??????,2001.

????[5]??????.????????ѡ??????[M].????:?????????????,2006.


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