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Qu Yuan (about 340 BC or 339 BC - 278 BC), the Warring States period Chu poet, politician.芈 surname, Qu's, name level, the original word; and from the cloud name is regular, the word spirit are, when the Warring States Period. The descendants of Chu Wu Wang Xiong Tong 's son. Junior was well educated, Bo Wen Qiang Zhi, ambition lofty. Early years by Chuxuwang trust, Ren Zuo, Sanlu doctor, and internal affairs foreign affairs. He advocated the "US government", advocated within the Mingxian any, repair the law, the main force against the Qin. Due to aristocratic exclusion slander, was exiled to Han and Yuan and Xiang watershed. Qin will be broken from the ancient capital of Ying Ying (now Hubei Jiangling), the Qu Yuan since the sun in the Miluo River, the body martyred.
Qu Yuan is the first great patriotic poet in Chinese history, the founder of the Chinese romantic literature, the founder and representative writer of the "Songs of the South", opened up the tradition of "vanilla beauty", known as the "Chinese poet" "The ancestors of Fu Fu". The emergence of Qu Yuan, marking the Chinese poetry into a collective singing by the individual to the original era of the original. Qu Yuan's main works are "Li Sao" "nine songs" "nine chapters" "days asked" and so on. Qu Yuan 's works as the main body of the "Songs of the South" is the source of Chinese romantic literature, and "Book of Songs" and "coquettish", the later poetry had a profound impact.
In 1953, the 2230th anniversary of the death of Qu Yuan, the World Peace Council passed a resolution to determine Qu Yuan for the year to commemorate the world one of the four major cultural celebrities.
Zhou Xian Wang twenty nine years (340 BC), one said Zhou Xian Wang thirty years (339 BC), the first day of the first seven days, Qu Yuan was born in Chu Danyang. The following year, Kulingpingli.
Zhou Xian Wang thirty-nine years (330 BC), Qu Yuan Lvpingli. Qu Yuan childhood childhood addiction, reading and more complex, "stone cave reading" and "Bashan wild veteran" when in this year's time.
Zhou Xian Wang forty years (329 BC), home music in the level. Qu Yuan was born aristocrat, but because of his childhood living in the people, to the family's good influence, and therefore very sympathetic to the poor people, from then on, the young age will do a lot of sympathy for the people of good things, won the praise of the word The
Zhou Xian Wang forty-eight years (321 BC), Qin Jun, Qu Yuan organization Leping in the young people struggling to fight, on the one hand he condescending to the ideological education of young people, on the one hand with a variety of tactics, witty to give The enemy to a heavy blow, a show their extraordinary talent.
Zhou Shenliang Wang Yuan years (320 BC), Zhongchun in March, Qu Yuan should be the king of the call out of the mountains, this year he was in the county for the county,
Zhou Shen Liang Wang two years (319 BC), promoted to Chuhuai Wang Zuo. This year's late autumn, Qu Yuan for the first time to make Qi.
Zhou Shen Liang Wang three years (318 BC), busy with Chu's internal and political work. Five countries jointly attack Qin, Qu Yuan army with the former.
"Historical Records Qu Yuan Jia Sheng Biography": Qu Yuan, Ming Ping, Chu surname also. For the Chu Huai Wang Zuo Tu. Bo Wen strong knowledge (zhi, four), Ming in the chaos, Xian Yu rhetoric. Into the state with the king of plans to state, to the number of orders; out of the guests, to deal with princes. Wang You Renzhi Shangguan doctor with the same column, fight for the heart and its harm. Huo Wang made Qu Yuan made for the Constitution, Qu Ping is a draft undecided.
On the Qu Yuan Zhuo Huo Wang Zuoshen post, ancient and modern scholars have more explanations, is to choose the wholesalers of the move:
1, Zhang Shoujie said: Zuo is left and right side of the class of officials. Tang Zhang Zhaowei "Historical Records · Qu Yuan Biography" said: "left the left and right to hide the left and right." However, according to modern scholars Chu Binjie, Zhao Kui Fu and others research, that later generations of the relics for the words officer, No real power, the Tang Dynasty's collection of official order is only "from the eight goods on", with "Historical Records" in the Qu Yuan engaged in political activities are not commensurate. Lu McCain, "Qu Yuan Commentary," said: "Zuo is left and right side of the official, second only to make Yin.
2, Lin Geng said: Zuo is too such as the official too Fu. Lin Geng "national poet Qu Yuan Chuan" attached to the "four note that left" a text, in the cited "Historical Records" on the Chun Shenjun for the Chu's cronies, Ren Zuozhe ren made Yin's account, said: "Zuo So that is the court of cronies, because it is cronies, so attend the Prince, the situation is about as Jia Yi for the 'Changsha Wang Fu', Qin also known as the yellow break for the 'prince Fu'.
3, You Guoen said: Zuo is to make Yin's deputy. You Guoen in the "Qu Yuan," a book that, according to "historiography Chu family": "test the king to the left to make Yin, sealed to Wu, No. Chun Shenjun." Therefore, the left seems to be second only to the status of the left The highest so that Yin, perhaps that is Yin's deputy.
4, Zhao Kui Fu said: Zuo is pedestrians. Zhao Kui-fu in the "Qu Yuan and his time" in the "Zuozheng Yin Yin pedestrian Fu" article. In this article, he unearthed cultural relics and related information for research, that "only", "Yin" word is double under the guise. And "Li Sao" "Ji Yuan Xiang to the south", "nine song" "driving dragon Come north sign", also cited "Erya release": "levy, line also." Said "Zheng Yin" , With the so-called "pedestrians" in the Central Plains countries, refers to the officials responsible for diplomacy.
5, Tang Bingzheng said: Zuo is left on the disciples. Tang Bing is in the "Qu Fu new exploration of the left and the disciples," a text that Zeng Hou Er unearthed bamboo slips on the official records of "left Deng", "rightist" is the ancient books " Word of the word, "l" word with the "Deng" word exactly the same, and each other by fake, therefore, "left" is "Zuo Dengtu" province, in the Chu court is a doctor level. At the same time, Tang Bingzheng also explained the duties of "leftist", that "Zuo Tu" although the internal affairs, diplomacy, but from the "Qu Yuan Biography", especially "Chun Shen Jun Biography" account, their main Activities are in diplomacy. Such as Qu Yuan several times to Qi and its struggle with Zhang Yi and other aspects can be confirmed.
6, Nie Shi Qiao said: Zuo is second only to the prime minister of the official. Nie Shiqiao "Qu Yuan on the draft" said: "Let Yin is the prime minister, we can see the left is the second only to the prime minister of the official." Zhan Antai in "Qu Yuan," a book that: "We according to later Chun Shenjun, It is easy to see that the left is at the time of being a senior official of Yin (prime minister), and said, "You can make the bells up."
7, Yao Xiaoou said: Zuo is a servant like a servant. Yao Xiaoou in the "Li Sao" first road "and Qu Yuan's early experience of the re-understanding" in a text, "Li Sao" "to my Taoist first road," the "road" is "辂", is the king of the public, and the following "Fear of Huang Yu of the defeat" coincide. And then the study of the "left" of the duties, that "left" is equivalent to the later "too servant" class of office. Yao Xiaoou said "too servant", according to "Zhou Tai servant" contains: "Too much, palm king of the service position, out of the king's life. Palm princes of the complex." To this end, Yao Xiaoou said: Zhou Li "in the 'too servant' post for the next doctor, the title is not high, but the role is very important." And that "the left of the duties and" Zhou "in the 'servant' quite.
8, Wang Yijun said: Zuo that Chu Huai Wang left Szeto. Wang Yijun in the "Qu Yuan Zuo that left Szeto test" ("Modern Chinese" 2010 8th) pointed out that Sima Qian "Historical Records" in the Qu Yuan for Chu Huo Wang Zuo that left Szeto slightly write. According to the "Qu Ping Biography" in the relevant account, Qu Yuan's office was drafted to accept the guests to meet the princes and "Zhou Guanshu" prescribed by the size of Stuart similar. Chu is still right, so the right Szeto is positive, left Szeto as vice, so Chu Jun to Stuart to replace the "Zhou Guan book" the size of Stuart name.
Reform of reform
Zhou Shen Liang Wang four years (317 BC), busy reform, the development and promulgation of various decrees.
Zhou Shen Liang Wang five years (316 BC), continue to reform reform, and the old aristocracy and all the stubborn forces to fight.
Zhou Shen Liang Wang six years (315 years ago), in-depth reform of the law, the people boiling; Chu situation changed, the old aristocracy is facing the fate of the destruction.
Slander and see sparse
Zhou Nan Wang Yuan (314 years ago), Qu Yuan Shangguan doctor of the slander and see sparse, was ousted left the right of the official, Ren Sanlu doctor's post.
Zhou Nan Wang two years (313 BC), Qu Yuan first exile in northern Han Dynasty (now Henan Xixia, Xichuan, Neixiang area). In order to break the Chu, Qi Union, Qin sent Zhang Yi bribery Chu Gui your pet minister, and deceive the king said: "Chu if the country can be disqualified, Qin is willing to offer business, in the area of more than 600 miles of land. Qu Yuan strongly persuaded, but the king did not listen, Chu Huai Wang listen to Zhang Yi, put the photo granted to people, with Zhang Yi to Qin by the ground. Zhang Yi back to Qin after the disease, three months without Chu to make. Wang Wang thought that he and Qi cut off the relationship is not strong enough, but also sent to abuse the king of a pass. Qi Wang furious, cut off and Chu of the vertical, but together with the Qin together. Zhang Yicai at that time to face Chu said: "Why do not you accept the land? From somewhere to a place, the vast six miles." Six hundred miles into a six years, Chu made a very angry, come back to report Chuhuai Wang (Now Henan Xixia, Xichuan area), the results are Qin defeated, the loss of eighty thousand troops, generals Qu beggar, the United States and the United States, etc., and so on, and so on, and so on. More than 70 people were captured by the Qin army, Hanzhong County fall, known as the "battle of Danyang." Subsequently, Qin sent troops to capture Chu to Hanzhong (now Shaanxi Hanzhong) 600 in the land, home Hanzhong County.
Zhou Nan Wang three years (312 BC), Chu sent troops to fight back, in the Lantian (now Shaanxi Lantian area) defeated. Han, Wei took the opportunity to attack Chu to Deng (now Henan Dengzhou), Chu army soldiers fear, return from the Qin. Han Xuan Wang died, reigned twenty-one years. Zi Xiang Wang warehouse legislation. Meng Ke agreed to leave Zhou Qi Wang three years. Meng Ke advocated "good", to persuade Qi Xuan Wang Xingzheng, advised Tengwen public line "mine field", because the immortal difficult, not by the two countries to adopt. Huo Wang re-enable Qu Yuan, let him out of Qi, the purpose is to let Qi Chu together to conclude a new alliance.
Zhou Nan Wang four years (311 BC), Qin Huiwen Wang Zenguan fourteen years, captured Chu Zhuling. Huiwen Wang is willing to Hanzhong half to Chu, and Chu alliance. Chu Huai Wang than Hanzhong land, but also want to get Zhang Yi. Zhang Yi came to Chu, due to heavily bribed Jin Shang, and get Chuhuai Wang Chong Ji Cheng sleeve into the words, get released back to Qin. Qin Huiwen Wang died, reigned for twenty-seven years. Ziwu Wang Dangli. Qu Yuan out of Qi, came back to Chu when Zhang Yi has left, to persuade the king said: "Why not kill Zhang Yi?" Huai Wang regret, sent to chase the instrument did not catch up.
Zhou Nan Wang five years (310 BC), Qin Wu Wang first year. Zhang Yi is not satisfied with the King Wu, Qin left the country rushed to Wei. Qu Yuan is still the king for the three-liter doctor. Huai Wang realized that Zhang Yi to deceive, out of a moment of expediency from the use of Qu Yuan Qi Qi, when Qu Yuan came back from Qi immediately after the Chaihuai Wang Yuan Yuan.
Zhou Nan Wang six years (309 years ago), Qin Wu Wang two years, Qi Xuan Wang for long, evil Chu and Qin together, sent to save the king of the book, pregnant Wang hesitant, Zhao Sui Li remonstrance, then Not in harmony with the good Korean. Qu Yuan can not participate in the affairs of the government, most likely by Zhao Sui and other ministers Dunhuai Wang Qi.
Zhou Nan Wang seven years (308 years BC), Qin Wu Wang three years, Gan Mao take Han Yiyang. Qu Yuan living in Yingdu, set up altar teaching.
Zhou Hao Wang seventeen years (298 BC), Qin Zhao Wangfa out of the customs, attack Chu, beheaded fifty thousand, analysis (now Henan Xichuan) and about 15 cities away.
Zhou Nan Wang eleven years (304 years ago), Qu Yuan wandering north (above the Han River, this Henan Nanyang Xixia, Xichuan area). Qin and Chu complex, and Qu Yuan plan contrary, and the traitor must have slander words, to avoid the Han, when there is a last resort, so "thinking" want to return to the meaning.
Exile background: the Warring States period, dominate the Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao, Wei, Qin seven countries, competing city wins, kill each other, years of continuous melee. At that time, Chu's poet Qu Yuan, just as a young man, He saw the people by the war disaster, very sad. Qu Yuan Lizhi serve the country for the people, to persuade the king to serve Xianneng, love the people, it was the trust of the king.
Jia Yi in the "hanging Qu Yuan Fu", so describe the era of Qu Yuan's social situation: alas, every ominous! Luan Feng Fu channeling, owl soar.阘 Velvet respect was Xi, slander flattery. Yin Sheng retrograde, Founder upside down. The world that with, for the muddy Xi, that plantar, for the cheaper. Moye for blunt, lead knife for the 铦. Abandoned Zhou Ding, Bao Kang scoop Come. Teng driving strike cattle, 骖 Jian donkey Come. Ji Hang ears, clothes salt car Come. Zhang Fu Jiu, not long Xi Xi. Mr. sigh, alone from this blame!
Jia Yi, Qu Yuan's life is all upside down: the owl flying in the sky, pharynx is deep up; villain was deity, saints are not used; honest and honest people by slander, tyrannical brutal people have been praised ; The sword was relegated to blunt, the lead knife was said to be sharp; the country's heavy treasure Zhou Ding was abandoned, empty jar can be used as a treasure; tired lame donkey driving a carriage, Maxima pulled a heavy salt car; Should be worn on the head, but was pad at the foot, was sweat soaked. This is the current situation of Chu.
At that time the West's most powerful Qin, often attack the six countries. The United States and the United States, the United States and the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, the United States, And make Huai Wang became the leader of the Union, so get the re-use of the king, a lot of internal affairs, diplomatic affairs, all with the original Qu Yuan.
Therefore, the Chu to the son of Zilan, led by a group of aristocrats, Qu Yuan was very jealous and jealous, often in front of Huai Wang said Qu Yuan bad words. Said he seized the monopoly, not the pregnant king in the eyes. Provoke more people, pregnant Wang Qu Yuan gradually alienated, because Qi Chu League, Qin did not dare to hands, hear the news, the king of the king of the king of the king to call the palace to discuss. Zhang Yi that the middle of the six countries, Qi Chu two most powerful, as long as the two countries, the Union also scattered. He is willing to take advantage of the opportunity of Chu within the discord, personally to dismantle the six-nation alliance.
Zhou Nan Wang thirteen years (302 years ago), Qi, Wei, South Korea forces attacked Chu, Chu Huai Wang sent Prince to Qin as hostage, asked Qin sent troops to rescue. Qin Wang Minqing Qing pass soldiers saved Chu, repelled the three forces. The following year, Qin a doctor and prince cross because of private affairs battle was killed. Prince of fear of fear of Qin Zhao Wang blame, privately fled to Chu. This led to the deterioration of relations between Qin and Chu, leading to the frequent attack on the state of Chu. "Qu Yuan hate Chu Huai Wang listen to the villain calumny, so that the real language blinded the correct language, these rumors will damage the interests of Chu, Founder can not tolerate, so Qu Yuan in sadness and quietly for" Li Sao " "
Zhou Nan Wang six years (299 BC), Qu Yuan at this time from the Han Dynasty exile to return, and Zhaoju, etc., to urge the king do not go to the meeting, said: "Qin, tiger country, not credible , As if no line. "Huo Wang's son child lan afraid of losing Qin Wang heart, trying to encourage the king to go. The results of the king into the Wu Guan Wu, Qin was detained, robbed Xianyang, to threaten him to cut the witch and county in the county. Chu Huai Wang was robbed Xianyang, Chu Qi Ying from Prince Edward for the Xiang Wang, son of the sub-Lan to make Yin, refused to leave the land to the Qin, Qin and sent troops attack Chu, defeated Chu, beheaded 50,000, Take sixteen city.
Zhou Nan Wang nine years (296 BC), pregnant Wang died in Qin, Qin will be his body back to Chu buried. Princes thus believe that the Qin injustice. Qin country, Chu cut off. Qu Yuan Zhou Nan Wang nine years in the year to remove the post of three husband, exile Jiangnan. He started from the Ying, first to E Zhu, and then into the Dongting.
Zhou Nan Wang two years (295 BC), Qu Yuan arrived in Changsha, in this Chu first king of the first seal of the territory of the mountains and rivers, even the case of the country's feelings.
Zhou Hao Wang twenty-two years (293 BC), Xiang Wang six years, Qin sent white to Iraq Que hit South Korea, made a major victory, beheaded 240,000. Qin then sent to the king of Chu said: "Chu betrayed Qin, Qin prepared to lead the princes crusade against Chu, a win. Hope you rectify the soldiers, to be happy to a war." Chu Xiang Wang did not forget Anti-"feelings, but also pointed out that the king of the last fall off the fate of other countries died, it is because" the so-called loyalty loyalty, and the so-called sage is not virtuous. "
Zhou Nan Wang twenty years to Zhou Nan Wang thirty-six years (294 BC to 279 BC), Qu Yuan was the second time exiled to the southern remote areas. The exile of the route, according to "Ai Ying" analysis, from the Ying (Hubei Jiangling County), the first to the southeast of the river down after the summer head (Hubei sand city southeast), looking Longmen (Ying are the East Gate) by Dongting Lake into the Yangtze River, and then left the Xia Pu (Hubei Hankou), and finally to the Lingyang (said to be this Anhui Qingyang County South). For up to 16 years, in between and wrote a large number of excellent literary works, such as "nine chapter sad return wind."
Since the vote Miluo
Qin to the king of the compromise concessions, not satisfied. The first two years, Qin white from the attack Chu, take evil, Deng, Xiling; are Xiang Wang two (the first 280 years), Qin will Sima wrong attack Chu, Chu cut to the supreme, Han North; Eleven years (before 278 years) from the further attack of the Ying are, only Xiang Wang had to go with those ruling nobles together, find any escape, "Paul in Chen (now Henan Huaiyang County)." In extreme depressed, completely desperate mood, in the Lunar New Year on May 5 vote Miluo River suicide. This year is probably Xiang Wang twenty-one years (278 BC), Qu Yuan was about 62 years old.
The Dragon Boat Festival
In 5th, May (lunar year), the Chinese celebrate this festival every year. In China, the day is also called the Double-Five Festival.
Its history: About 2000 years ago (the Spring-Autumn &War State Period), there were seven states in china and among of which Qing State was the strongest one that wanted swallowed up the six other states. So the QingStatesent a spy to the ChuStatealienating its court. At last Quyuan, one patriot, was discharged. Due to his affection towards his motherland, Sir Qu could not put into practice of his ability. Seeing such terrible situation, he could do nothing to help the king. So he chosen to die and sacrifice himself for his motherland.
As a result, every year the Chinese make special food Zhongzi (use some green herb leaves to wrap rice and tie it with a thread) then throw into the river, wishing fish and shrimp may eat Zhongzi and not Sir Qu ‘s body. They also hold the Dragon Boat Racing for scar the fish eating Sir. Qu. By this way the Chinese folk pay homage to the respected patriot.
But today the customs is a little bit changed. Many folk can eat the green bean cake except the Zhongzi and the Dragon Boat Racing and most importantly the family member can hold together to appreciate the holiday.