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George Washington (February 22, 1732 - December 14, 1799), the United States outstanding bourgeois politicians, military strategists, revolutionaries, the founding fathers of the United States, the father, the first president.
1775 to 1783 American War of Independence when the Continental Army (Continental Army) commander in chief, 1787 presided over the Constituent Assembly. The meeting developed the current US Constitution. In 1789, he became the first president of the United States (which became the first president of the world to be the "president"), and in the successive elections, Have won all the electoral groups without objection support, has served as president until 1797. He has set up many policies and traditions that have continued into today's term. At the end of his two terms, he voluntarily waived his power to no longer seek to succeed.
Washington, as the most important role in the American War of Independence and the founding of the country, was known as the "father of the United States", also known as "the father of the United States." The scholars tied him to Abraham Lincoln, Franklin Roosevelt as the greatest president in American history. George Washington was rated by the American authoritative journal "Atlantic Monthly" as the second of the 100 characters in the United States.
In 1732, George Washington was born in Virginia's Wickfeld House. He is the son of a rich plantation owner. Father Augustine Washington died at the age of 11, leaving a legacy of seven children and wife, Mary Bauer Washington, in George Washington. Young Washington received education equivalent to primary school. He failed to study classical courses. In the mother's strict discipline, he mastered the land measurement, livestock breeding and other technologies, learn to use their skills to make money.
In 1751, 19 years old, he carried out the only time in his life travel abroad, unfortunately infected with smallpox, but also received the immunity to smallpox. The following year, Washington inherited another considerable property, including the brother of Vernon Villa.
In 1753, Washington at the age of 22, inadvertently became the French Indian war (French and Indian War) one of the fuse. This year, the French began to build a fortress at the then Ohio Valley, which belonged to the territory of Virginia, which was one of the French's strategies. The French were supported by local aborigines, trying to prevent the British from continuing westward expansion of their colonies in the United States and blocking the British army in the colonies. The governor of Virginia was Robert Dinwiddie, who had served the major of Washington as the last ultimatum to the French commander and asked the French to leave. Washington revealed the process to the local newspaper, and he became a legend. But the French refused to evacuate, so the British to take further action.
In 1754, just promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in Washington by Ding Weidi sent to the Virginia First Corps, to the Ohio Valley to attack the French. Washington led the army to ambush a team of French Canadians. After a brief fight, the Washington Indian ally Tanach Washington tribe killed French commander Ensign Jumonville, where Washington established a Fort Necessity But the fortress was attacked very quickly, but he was forced to surrender in the presence of more French and other Indian troops. At the time of the surrender, Washington signed an instrument recognizing that he had "assassinated" the commander of the French commander Jumonville (because the instrument was written in French, Washington did not understand it), and this instrument led to international events, became French Indian One of the causes of human war. This war is also part of the seven years of war. Washington was later released on parole by the French and was released within a year without returning to the Ohio Valley.
In 1755, Washington, who had been eager to join the British army (who was not interested in the colonies at that time) was finally waiting for the opportunity. At that time the British launched expedition, try to regain the Ohio Valley. The expedition was devastating in the Battle of the Monongahela. Washington's coat was punched by four rounds of bullets, but he was still unharmed, and he calmly organized troops to retreat in the fire. In Virginia, Washington became a hero, although the focus of the war has been transferred elsewhere, he continued to lead the Virginia First Corps for several years.
In 1758, he started another expedition with General John Forbes, successfully dropping the French from the Duquesne fortress. Participation in the seven years of war in Britain and France is of great significance to Washington. Washington's future command of the mainland army, it is due to his seven years of war in Britain and France in the British service has made some military experience and prestige.
In 1759, Washington resigned from the military. Because the goal of the initial military career was to become a regular British officer - not just the officers of the colonial militia. But he has not been promoted. He then marries Martha Dandry Kastis, who is a widow who has two children. Washington and her together to support the two children: John Parker Kastis and Martha Parker Kastis, later he also raised her two grandchildren, but Washington has never had their own blood children The After the wedding they moved to Mount Vernon to live, living a gentleman class farmer and slaves of the Lord's life. Washington in the next fifteen years to run their own property, showing extraordinary talent. He was elected to the local House of Representatives of Virginia for 15 years. Washington has advocated North American autonomy under British rule. Hope to burst after strongly opposed to the British colonial rule, advocated the realization of national independence.
In 1774, Washington was elected a representative of Virginia to attend the first continental conference. As a result of the Boston tea incident, the British government closed the port of Boston and abolished Massachusetts' legislative and judicial rights. The colonies in 1775 in 1775 in Lexington and Kang Kete after the war with the British, in 1776, Washington wearing uniforms to attend the second continental conference - he is the only one to do so, that he wanted to lead The willingness of the Virginia militia to fight. The representative of Massachusetts, John Adams, recommended him to serve as commander of all colonies and said he had "the talent of the officer ... great talent and universal traits". This is because Adams learned that the best way to ensure that the southern colonies can work together with the northern colonies to form the continental corps is to recommend a southern colony as commander.
June 15, 1776, Washington, through the General Assembly elections without objection to become commander of the commander. He was not a pioneer of independence, but the second continental conference in June 1775 was unanimously elected to command the mainland troops and commanded the American War of Independence. In addition to John Adams and others support, Washington's personal charisma, personal prestige and personal qualities also played a big role in his ability to stand out. (In 1774, he was chosen as a representative of Virginia to attend the first continental meeting, has become the largest American colonial one of the rich), famous; he looks handsome, physically Robust (6 feet 2 inches, about 188cm), the command to excellence, especially his unswerving character makes him a commander of course. Although I was reluctant to leave my beloved Virginia home, Washington still accepted the post of commander and declared: "I do not think I can do the glorious position of this commander, but I will accept the position with the greatest sincerity." Claiming that in addition to the necessary expenses, there is no need to pay him any additional remuneration. In this way, Washington on July 3 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, served as the commander of the entire colonial army.
In 1776, Washington attacked Boston, using the artillery positions that had been captured earlier in the Ticonderoga Fort, overlooking the entire Boston port, and finally after more than a month of siege, the British sold out of Boston. The victory accelerated the independence of the United States, the mainland meeting adopted the "Declaration of Independence." British commander William Howe ordered the British to withdraw from Halifax in Canada. Washington then led the army to New York City, the British army is expected to launch an offensive. The British army, which had an overwhelming force, launched an offensive in August, and Washington's retreat was rather clumsy and almost annoyed. He also lost the Battle of Long Island on August 22, but was able to retreat most of the troops back to the mainland. In the next he lost several battles, making the army hastily evacuated the New Jersey, then the future of the American revolution precarious.
On the evening of December 25, 1776, Washington rallied. In the Battle of Trenton, he led the fishermen's help to lead the lesser than three thousand US troops to steal the skyline of the Delaware River in the cold Christmas night, raiding the Hessian mercenaries (Hessian) Barracks, British defenders or death or injury or captured, the mainland army only six casualties. Subsequently, Washington and command the mainland army while the British reinforcements did not reach, attacked Princeton, and then win. He then raided the British forces led by Charles Cornwallis on the night of January 2, 1777, which inspired the morale of an independent colonial camp.
In the summer of 1777, the British launched a three-way offensive, led by John Burgoyne (John Burgoyne) led from Canada to the south attack, all the way led by William Heo attack the then colonial capital of Philadelphia. And Washington to the south, but in the September 11 battle of the Battle of the Battle of the Battle of Brandywine suffered a defeat. The Battle of Germantown, which was launched in order to defeat the British army, failed because of fog and military chaos. Even though the Continental Army defeated the invasion of the British forces led by Bogue in the Battle of Saratoga, Washington and his army had to withdraw from the harsh Furu Valley (Valley Forge) struggling through the winter.
1777 to 1778 in the winter, the mainland army fighting conditions and the worst moments of morale (political revolutionary movement is also), the continental army suffered a great war damage and in a harsh living environment. But Washington is still firmly in command of the army, and continue to the rear of the colony meeting to ask for more supplies, so that the mainland army to overcome the cold winter, gradually restore morale. In February of 1778, one of the officers, Friedrich von Steuben, who had served in the Prussian Army General Staff, came to the Foggy Valley to volunteer to train the Washington Army to make them on the battlefield And the British comparable. The training of the Torreje in the Foggis Valley improved tactics and combat discipline, greatly enhanced the combat power of the colonial army, and became the watershed of the colonial army to get rid of the united state. When the training in the Foggis Valley came to an end, the Washington army had a new look.
On June 28, 1778, in the Battle of Monmouth, Washington led the army to attack the British from Philadelphia to New York, tied with the British, but the attempt by the British separatist colonial government failed. Coupled with the 1777 victory over the battle of Saratoga, the situation gradually improved, the British apparently can not overcome the whole new country, so France decided to formally alliance with the United States.
In 1779, in favorable circumstances, Washington carried out the action against the Indians. He ordered one-fifth of the mainland army to launch the Sullivan Expedition, four of which led to four of the six tribes of the Iroquois League, which had joined forces with the British forces and often attacked the US frontier. And no fighting occurred, but the Continental Army destroyed at least 40 Iroquois villages, so that these Indians were forced to leave the United States forever, migrated to Canada. During the American War of Independence, because of the large number of Indians to help the British, Washington launched a bloody revenge against the Indians, opened the Indian massacre curtain.
In 1780, the British last try to separate the colony, the British concentrated in the southern region. Washington's troops did not attack them directly, but went to the West Point military base in New York.
In 1781, the US army and the French army and the navy surrounded the Cornwallis army in Yorkshire, Washington quickly went to the south, on October 17 took over the command of the US military and the French, continue to siege until 10 On the 17th, Cornwall surrendered, and on 19 October he took the carnival of Cornwallis. Although the British were still active in New York City and other locations until 1783, the battle that York town became the last major battle of the War of Independence.
In 1783, with the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1783), the United Kingdom recognized the independence of the United States. Washington disbanded his army and made a wonderful farewell speech at Rocky Hill, New Jersey, to his soldiers who followed him for many years. When Washington left the army, his final title in the Continental Corps was "General and Commander-in-Chief". A few days later, the British retreated from New York City, where Washington and the colonial government returned to the city.
Surrender military power
On December 4, 1783, Washington published a formal farewell speech in New York City. On December 23 of the same year, he resigned his commander-in-chief of the army in the Congress of the Confederation, which was held later in the House of Parliament in Annapolis, Maryland. This is a very important process for the nascent state, the establishment of civilians elected officials rather than by the military to organize the government precedent, to avoid the emergence of the militarist regime. Washington is convinced that only the people have sovereignty over the state, and no one can take power in the United States by military power or by his aristocracy alone.
1783, Christmas Day on the eve of the evening of Washington arrived at the house. He had no chance to return home since he left his beloved home in 1775. At the door to welcome him is his previous promised to return to his wife in 8 years, and four have been able to walk the grandchildren - all in his home this time was born.
In 1787, Washington presided over the Constituent Assembly in Philadelphia. He did not participate in the discussion, but his prestige maintained the conference's leadership and allowed the delegation to focus on the discussion. After his meeting, his prestige made many people, including the Virginia parliament, trusted the outcome of the conference, thus supporting the Constitution of the United States - the Constitution of 1787. Although his thoughts had little effect on the American Constitution itself, his supporters and his fame had played a major role in the state's approval of the constitution. There was a powerful force in opposition to the new constitution, and without the support of Washington, the new constitution could not be adopted. After the end of the Constituent Assembly, Washington retired for the second time.
In 1789, Washington was elected the first president of the United States, he re-elected in 1793. He established and perfected the democratic and legal system, the organization of the federal government, and the promulgation of the judicial regulations, the establishment of the Federal Supreme Court, according to the Constitution and the help of Hamletton. He tends to favor the Federalists on many issues, but seeks to strike a balance between the Federalists and the Democratic Republicans (Democrats). He supported Hamilton's plan to set up a national bank, established a national credit, and approved the public land bill supported by T. Jefferson, laying the foundations of the western free land system.
November 4, 1794, Washington sent the chief judge J. Jay and the British negotiations, signed the "Jay Treaty", which is to ease the contradiction with the British purpose, but in some ways detrimental to the interests of the United States, Was opposed by Madison and other Republicans. Washington did not join any party and did not appreciate political politics, but his late political stance turned to the federal party and demanded that the expansion of federal authority had aroused opposition from Madison and Jefferson.
Retired from death
In March 1797, after the end of the two terms of office, Washington voluntarily gave up power no longer renewed. After which he will restore the civilian life for the third time, retreat in the Vernon Hill Manor.
In 1798, due to the war approaching, in order to warn of France, Washington was appointed by the new president John Adams as Lieutenant General of the US Army (at that time it was the highest rank in the army). It was only a symbolic appointment, and Washington did not really serve.
In 1799, Washington was infected with a cold, causing severe fever and sore throat, and worsened to laryngitis and pneumonia. December 14, 1799 Washington died. The remains were buried in Mount Vernon.