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Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 - April 15, 1865), Republicans, American politicians, thinkers, abolition of black slavery. 16th president of the United States, during his presidency, the United States outbreak of civil war, known as the Civil War, Lincoln firmly opposed to the national division. He abolished the rebellion of the state slavery, promulgated the "homestead law", "the liberation of black slaves declaration." Lincoln defeated the separatist forces in the south, maintaining the rights of the United States and its territory, regardless of race, human life and equal rights. Shortly after the end of the civil war, Lincoln was assassinated, was the first assassination of the US president, is also the first Republican president, has repeatedly been rated as the greatest president. The latest version of the $ 5 notes is the picture of Abraham Lincoln.
In 2006, Abraham Lincoln was rated by the American authoritative journal "Atlantic Monthly" as the first 100 characters to influence the United States.
British "The Times" in 2008 organized the Committee of Experts on the 43 US presidents were different standards for the "greatest president" ranking, Abraham Lincoln as the first.
February 12, 1909, Lincoln was born in a poor family in Harding County, Kentucky, in his own words, his childhood is "a poor chronology of poverty." When he was a child, he helped the family move the firewood, raise the water, do the farm work, and so on. Parents are descendants of British immigrants who live by farming and hunting.
In 1816, the Lincoln family moved to the southwest of Indiana, land reclamation for a living. 9 years old, Lincoln only 36-year-old mother died, and thus cultivate his ability to think and work independently, grew up after the height of 193cm, but always gives the most calm and depressed impression. A year later, the father married a good-hearted woman named Sally Bush. Stepmother kindly hard work, treat her husband's ex-wife's children as their own, full of love for the small Lincoln, Lincoln also respected mother, a family living in harmony and happiness. Lincoln's education is not high due to poor family poverty. In order to maintain the family plan, juvenile Lincoln had been on the Ohio River ferry, plantation workers and so on.
At the age of 18, tall Lincoln was hired by a shipowner, with people along a flat barge boat along the Ohio River, sailing thousands of miles to New Orleans. Before the age of 25, Lincoln did not have a fixed career, four to make a living. Adulthood, he became a local land surveyor, due to proficient in measurement and calculation, often people to go to solve the boundary disputes. In the hard work of spare time, Lincoln is always a love of reading young people, his night lights always flash to late very late. In his youth, Lincoln read all of Shakespeare's writings, read "American history", and read many historical and literary books. He makes himself a learned and intelligent man through self-study.
Beginning with politics
In 1834, at a political rally Lincoln first published a political speech, because of criticism of the slave system, made some suggestions conducive to public affairs, he had an impact in the public, coupled with his outstanding character, In 1834 he was elected a state legislator. In August the same year, 25-year-old Lincoln was elected as a member of Illinois as a member of the Illinois and re-elected three to 1842, while managing the country post office, and engaged in land survey.
In 1836, Lincoln became a lawyer through self-study, and later opened a law firm in Springfield. And soon became the state legislator Whig party leader. After accumulating the experience of state legislators. In 1846, 37-year-old Lincoln was elected to the US House of Representatives.
In 1847, Lincoln as the representative of the Whig Party, participated in the election of members of Congress, was successful, the first time to the capital of Washington. In the past, the debate on slavery has become a major event in American political life. In this argument, Lincoln became an anti-niggerist. He believes that slavery should eventually be eliminated, first of all should be in the capital Washington to abolish slavery. Manchuists who represent the interests of the slave owners in the south are frantically opposed to Lincoln's slavery.
In 1850, the slave forces in the United States increased, and Lincoln withdrew from Congress and continued as a lawyer. In 1856, Lincoln withdrew from the Whig Party for his strong opposition to the expansion of slavery, took part in the newly established Republican against slavery and soon became the main leader of the party.
In November 1860, Lincoln was elected president, Republican for the first time in power. Lincoln's election posed a serious threat to the interests of the southern plantation owners, the southern plantation slaves for the manufacture of divisions, launched a mutiny, the southern 11 states have quit the federal, announced the establishment of the "United States Union", and developed a new constitution, Elect the new president.
In April 1861, the southern rebel forces first provoked war to the north. Lincoln called on the people to fight for the reunification of the Union, the outbreak of the Civil War. After the Civil War began, President Lincoln was decisive, not only to expand the power of the President of the war, but also ordered in some areas to abolish the personal protection of citizens privileges. However, Lincoln has been shaken and hesitated on the issue of liberation of slaves, one of the important concerns is the private property rights issues related to the constitutional process. In view of the fact that the US Constitution prohibits the government from depriving citizens of property without proper legal process, Lincoln has no intention or liberation of slaves.
August 22, 1862, in a letter to the New York Tribune editor, "Lincoln wrote:" My highest goal is to save the federation, neither to preserve slavery nor to destroy slavery. A slave can save the union, I will not liberate; if the liberation of all slaves can save the federal, I will be all liberation; if the liberation of part of the slaves, not the liberation of other slaves can save the federal, I also do. "In his presidency, Lincoln tried to demand a peaceful way to abolish slavery in order to avoid state divisions and wars. But with the deepening of the war, Lincoln really realized that in order to really abolish slavery, it must be bloodshed and sacrifice, and the way of peace can not solve any problems at all. Lincoln, in the most critical juncture of the civil war, was able to comply with the demands of the broad masses of the people and destroy the slavery in a revolutionary way and to solve the people's demands on the land, thus promoting the development of American capitalism and maintaining national unity and the liberation of black slaves Made an important contribution.
Civil war wins
The defeat of the North on the battlefield caused strong dissatisfaction among the broad masses of the people, and many cities broke out demonstrations and asked the government to take measures to reverse the war situation. At this time Lincoln realized that in order to win the war, we must mobilize the enthusiasm of farmers, the abolition of slavery, the liberation of slaves. In May 1862, Lincoln signed the "Homestead Law", which stipulated that each American citizen would pay only $ 10 in registration fees and would be able to make 160 acres of land in the west and five years after the continuous cultivation became the legitimate owner of the land. This measure fundamentally eliminates the possibility of the southern slave owners to seize the western land, but also to meet the urgent needs of the majority of farmers, greatly stimulated the enthusiasm of farmers fighting courageously. In September 1862, Lincoln personally drafted the "liberation of black slaves declaration (draft)".
January 1, 1863 formally promulgated the "liberation of black slaves declaration", announced that the abolition of the rebellion of the slavery of the state, the liberation of the slaves can be called to participate in the federal army. Announced the slaves to obtain freedom, fundamentally disintegrated the combat effectiveness of the Southern Army, but also to the North Army to get a solid source of soldiers. During the civil war, direct black warriors reached 18.6 million people, they are very brave fighting, the average of every three blacks have one for the liberation of the cause of life.
1863 proposed "people, the people, the people enjoy" the programmatic slogan, so that the war has become a mass revolutionary struggle. It is important to note that the Liberation Slave Declaration advocates that all slaves of the territory under the rebel territory of the United States should enjoy freedom, but the object of exemption also includes states that are not divorced from the federal state and the state under the control of the state. This declaration immediately liberates a small part of the slaves, but essentially strengthens the authority of the slave army after the federal army controls the territory of the Union, and paves the way for the final abolition of the national slavery. The promulgation of the two laws of the "Homestead Law" and the "Declaration of the Liberation of the Black Slaves" is a turning point in the Civil War, and the situation on the battlefield has become increasingly favorable to the North. On July 1, 1863, the two sides launched the largest battle since the Civil War in Gettysburg, north of Washington. The two sides fighting for three days and three nights, the North Army hit the Southern Army, the South Army lost 36,000 people, from the North Army began to enter the counterattack, while the South Army only defensive.
On July 4, 1863, the Northern Army was victorious in Vicksburg. Vicksburg is located on the Mississippi River, is a 200 feet above the surface of the cliff, according to the cliff of the Southern Army condescending, you can use fire directly threaten the river from the ship. It is very difficult to attack this fortress from below. As early as the end of 1862, Grant led his troops in the Navy with the help of several times to attack the fortress, but did not succeed. In April 1863, Grant launched a new offensive plan, first destroyed the fortress around the various positions, and then surrounded the Vicksburg. The Navy also came to help, from the land and water at the same time attack, violent shelling fortress, deafening sound has been ringing for 47 days. July 4, trapped in the fortress of the Southern Army exhausted, forced to surrender, the Northern Army this time captive rebels 2.9 million people. Then, the northern army swept the leaves of the autumn trend, the rapid pursuit of rebels, April 3, 1865 captured the rebel capital Richmond. On 9 April, the rebel commander-in-chief Robert Lee's rate of remnants of 28,000 people surrendered to Grant in the village of Apomacomos. The four-year-long North and South war ended in the north.
Due to Abraham Lincoln's outstanding achievements in the American Civil War, he was re-elected as President of the United States on 8 November 1864. However, before Lincoln put his postwar policy into effect, the tragedy took place. At 10:15 on April 14, 1865, Lincoln was shot at the Ford Theater in Washington on the fifth day after the surrender of the South Army. Sympathetic to the South actor John Booth while the president bodyguard to leave, quietly slipped into the presidential box shot hit Lincoln. On 15 April, the 16th President of the United States of America, Abraham Lincoln, died.
Booth was born in the United States after the opening of the theater, his superb acting has been the object of female fans chase. But the Boss was in the midst of the mourning of the country, and he was unequivocal in politics: a strong supporter of the Confederacy. During the civil war, Booth put together a group of people secretly activities, these people, including his childhood friends Mitchell Aoluofu Lin and Sam Arnold; Maryland, a manufacturing carriage of George Atzrode; 23 years old Of the drugstore staff David Herold; former South Federal fighter Louis Powell, and a former army has provided information for the John Salat. The organization had plotted an apartment in Washington to kidnap Lincoln to exchange plans for captive soldiers in the south, but these plans were as fruitless as many other conspiracies.
Lincoln was stabbed two or three days before, Booth almost every day drunk, his former conspiracy organization fragmented, only Pein, Herod and Atzrod. April 14 at noon, he went to the Ford Theater to take the e-mail, inadvertently see the poster said Lincoln and Grant will attend the evening show, Booth burst of ecstasy, immediately called the buddies to implement their final plan: Assassinate Vice President Johnson, Pein and Herold to assassinate the increasingly recovering Secretary of State West Howard, Booth himself to shoot the president.
Booth entered the president's box at 10 pm. The box is a lock, but this lock in a few days ago on the bad, and no one reported the matter. As Booth was an actor, so the guards of the President did not embarrass him. Police John Parker should have been on the way to the box in the lobby, but he was not interested in the play, so he hid to another room to drink.
When Booth entered the box, he calmly aimed the gun between Lincoln's left ear and back ... ... shot a total of 8 times, Lincoln was hit 6 times, of which 5 hit the key. However, only 1675 viewers, only few people heard gunshots, and even sitting next to Mrs. Lincoln and a few accompanied by watching the people are not too shocked by the gunfire. It was hard to hear that the laughter and the gunshots of the audience were hard to hear because Booth had chosen to shoot at the climax of the play.
Then the box in a chaos, Booth jumped from the box to the stage, turned to the audience shouted: "All tyrants are the end of this." This is the famous words of Virginia. After the assassination of Lincoln, Booth has been to the south to escape, but because the government launched a national search, Booth was found in a locked pigsty, and finally killed by the guns outside the staff. After the death of a few decades, there are a lot of people claim that they are real Booth, there is a person several times twice said that he is Booth, but in fact because these people want to be known through this, from these Things can reflect Lincoln's position in the eyes of the Americans is extremely high.
1834年8月，他作为辉格党人当选为伊利诺伊州议员并连任三届至1842年，1836年通过自学取得律师资格，后在斯普林菲尔德合伙开办律师事务所，1847年作为该州辉格党内唯一代表当选为国会众议员。1856年，林肯因强烈反对扩大奴隶制而退出辉格党，参加新成立的反对奴隶制的共和党，并很快成为该党主要领导人。1860年11月，林肯当选总统，共和党首次执政。林肯的当选对南方种植园主的利益构成严重威胁。1861年，南北战争爆发。战争初期，林肯采取谋求同南方和解的方针，军事上节节失利。在各阶层的强烈要求下，一系列打击奴隶制的法令在1862年得以通过。 1862年09月22日，林肯发表《解放黑人奴隶宣言》，宣布自1863年01月01日起废除叛乱各州的奴隶制，奴隶将成为自由人。文件给黑奴带来了希望和勇气，许多黑奴脱离了南方军队，参加了北方军。1864年，他提出“民有、民治、民享”的口号，鼓舞士气，于1865年04月取得内战胜利。在1864年大选中，林肯提出了废除奴隶制的第十三条修正案并列入共和党竞选纲领。11月08日，林肯再次当选为总统。 1865年04月14日晚，林肯在华盛顿福特剧院观看喜剧《我们的美国亲戚》时，被一个奴隶主刺杀，次日晨逝世。林肯的不幸逝世引起了国内外的巨大震动，美国人民深切哀悼他，有700多万人停立在道路两旁向出殡的行列致哀，有150万人瞻仰了林肯的遗容。