时间：2017-08-21 09:19:10本文内容及图片来源于读者投稿,如有侵权请联系xuexila888@qq.com 伟鑫 我要投稿
Thomas Alva Edison, born February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931, was born in Milan, Ohio, and died in West Orange, New Jersey, USA. Inventor, entrepreneur.
Edison is the first person in the history of mankind to use the mass production principles and electrical engineering research laboratory to engage in invention patents and have a significant impact on the world. He invented the phonograph, film camera, light on the world have a great impact. He invented a total of more than 2,000 items, with more than 1,000 patents. Edison was named 9th of the 100 characters in the United States by the American Journal of the Atlantic.
Bitter music childhood
In 1854, there was a great impact on his development, the south bank of Lake Erie opened along the lake railway, making the Milan Canal merchant business greatly reduced, Edison father's business has no way to maintain it, because a life Gradually difficult, in order to seek another development, the Edison family moved to this, they left Milan moved to the northern suburbs of Port Huron, Michigan, Glatti Ott Castle began a new life, moved to the new home soon, Edison suffered scarlet fever.
Drive out the school
In 1855, he began to go to school, that school only one class, principals and teachers are Mr. Engel. Because Edison has the root of the question, in the class often often ask the teacher questions some alternative problems (such as: how the wind is generated; plus one why is equal to two instead of four), just three months time, was the teacher to "Low energy" in the name of the school.
Also division also mother
Because the mother Nancy was a teacher of a women's school, is a rich educational experience, she does not think their children are "low energy", so Nancy himself taught Edison. According to Nancy weekdays to observe, Edison is not only "low energy", and often show talent. Nancy often let Edison do experiments themselves, once talked about Galileo's "Leaning Tower Experiment", Nancy let Edison to his home next to the tower to try, Edison took two sizes and weights of different balls At the same time from the tower on the cast, the results of two goals at the same time landing, Edison feel very magical and excited to tell the mother of experimental results, the experiment also engraved in Edison mind.
Because of the good educational methods of the mother, Edison realized the importance of the book. He is not only a group of books, but also a ten lines and never forget. Edison under the guidance of his mother read the British Renaissance writers Shakespeare, Dickens's writings and many important historical books, such as Edward Gibbon's "Roman Empire decline history", David Hume's "British history", he also Having read some of Thomas Paine's writings, Edison was attracted by the insights of the book and had always influenced his life.
Edison began to have an interest in chemistry, and he experimented with textbooks in his own cellar, and often made frequent accidents.
In 1859, Edison in order to have enough money to buy chemicals and laboratory equipment, he began to find a job to make money, after some effort he found the work of the newspaper on the train, every day between the Port Huron and Detroit, his side Selling newspapers also side by side with fruit, vegetable business, but as long as a free he will go to the library to read.
In 1861, Edison bought an old press with his earned newspaper and began publishing his weekly magazine, Herald, which was printed on the train. He was president, journalist, publisher, and Printing workers and newsboy. There was a lounge on the train that Edison had worked because the air was not in circulation, so nobody went to rest and became empty. Because Edison every day in the train on the rush, every day late to go home, often feel that time is not enough, Edison that if the lounge to the laboratory, then return to Port Huron on the way, you can do the experiment, With the consent of the conductor, the unmanned lounge became Edison's lab. Although the experiment was a lot easier, but the accident also often occurred, once his laboratory chemicals suddenly caught, causing the loss, the train length of his experimental equipment was thrown out of the car.
One day in August 1862, Edison saved a boy on the train track, and the father of the child was the owner of the railway station, McKenzie, and was very grateful to teach Edison telegraph technology in Mackenzie's Under the guidance of Edison learned telegraph technology and issued his first telegram.
In 1863, Edison was introduced by McKenzie, who served as telecom operator at the mainline railway station, but did not take long to be fired.
In 1864 to 1867, Edison in the United States as a service officer, living a wandering life, life is not guaranteed, during which Edison changed ten work locations, five was removed from office, the other five is his resignation, footprints To Stella Ford, Adrian, Fort Wayne, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Nashville, Tennessee, Memphis, Louisville, Huron.
The first patent
At the end of 1868, Edison came to Boston as a teller, and in the same year he won the first invention patent, a device that automatically records the number of votes, that is, "voting counter", Edison believes that this device will speed up Congress And will be welcomed by a congressman who told him that he was slowly voting and politically needed, so Edison decided not to create an invention that people did not need.
Find the direction
In late autumn of 1869, Edison came to work in New York, but when he was looking for a job in a company, it happened that a telegraph was broken, and Edison soon repaired the telegraph and received the general manager Of the appreciation, the results he became a total telegraph technician, with a stable working environment and wages, for his later invention provides a good condition. In October of the same year, Edison and Franklin Pope co-founded the "Pope - Edison" company, specializing in electrical engineering scientific instruments, at the same time invented the ordinary printing press.
Invention and entrepreneurship
The first pot of gold
In 1870, Edison sold the patent for the press to a Wall Street company, let the manager out of their own price, would like to ask for thousands of dollars is enough, the manager actually gave Edison forty thousand dollars. Edison received $ 40,000 to build a factory in Ward Street, WACKER, New Jersey, to manufacture all kinds of electrical machinery.
In 1873, Edison was put into the study of synchronous dispatchers.
In December 1874, the research work of the Synchronous Sentinel was nearing completion, and Western Union had promised to pay $ 5,000 for Edison and offered $ 25,000 to pay $ 233 a day for each of the equipment Line costs, but the Western Union failed to practice, and ultimately Jay Gould to $ 300 acquisition of the simultaneous launch of the patent, so Edison had a storm.
At the end of 1875, Edison was about to celebrate the birth of the second child, feeling the room was too narrow at home, the narrow streets of the Newark factory, the noisy environment also affected the work of the researchers, Edison finally relocated determination.
In early 1876, Edison moved to Monroe Park, New Jersey, where he built a laboratory.
Gramophone was born
In 1877, Edison improved the phone that was invented by Alexander Bell, and put it into practical use, and soon opened the telephone company. Edison and Bell, two hostile companies in London, launched a fierce competition. In the process of improving the phone, found the microphone in the diaphragm, with the sound and vibration, he found a needle, erected on the membrane board, gently press the top of the hand, and then speak to the membrane, the sound The speed of the level of the short needle corresponding to produce different changes in the quiver, Edison draw the sketch for this assistant to make the machine, and then after several transformation, the first phonograph was born.
Study the light
In September 1878, Edison began to study the lights, but because of Edison's economic problems had to find financial support, so the establishment of a joint-stock company in order to provide financial support for the experiment, and soon Loree found several shareholders, they are willing to pay for Edison research Light. But Edison often failed, and soon ran out of fifty thousand dollars run out, part of the shareholders of the faith began to shake, Edison hard to persuade the shareholders decided to take fifty thousand dollars to support Edison.
October 21, 1879, the successful development of light, he tried to close the 1600 kinds of materials for testing, continuous use of 45 hours after the lamp filament was burned, which is the first human has a wide range of practical value Of the light, this light has a "high resistance incandescent", "carbonized cotton light" a variety of names, made of carbonized cotton.
In 1880, Edison dispatched assistants and experts in the world to find the application of bamboo, there are about six thousand, of which the Japanese bamboo made of carbon wire is the most practical, sustainable lighting for more than a thousand hours, to achieve the purpose of durability The lamp is called "carbonized bamboo light".
In 1881, at the Paris World Expo, Edison exhibited a weight of 27 tons, for 1200 lights lighting power generation equipment.
In 1883, Edison in a light test observed in the bulb, a separate copper wire, that can prevent the evaporation of carbon wire to extend the lamp life, after repeated tests, although the evaporation of carbon wire, but he was from the failure Found that carbon wire heating, the copper line as much as a weak current through, and later this phenomenon is called "Edison effect", 1904 British physicist Fleming according to "Edison effect" invented the tube.
Heavy twists and turns
In 1884, Edison applied for the "Edison effect" of the patent, but he did not carry out the next step. Nicholas Tesla with the employer Charles Bachler's letter of recommendation (which generally: I know there are two great people, you are one of them, the other is the young man.) Came to New York , Went to Edison's lab job, Edison immediately hired Tesla to arrange for him to work at Edison Machinery. Tesla began to make a simple electrical design for Edison, he progressed quickly, helping the company solve many problems. But Tesla believes that the power supply to the user, the AC should be better than the DC, and that they can create an alternator, but Edison does not agree with Tesla's view, he believes that DC is better and more secure than AC.
In 1885, Tesla proposed to redesign the invalid DC generators in Edison, and Edison agreed and said that if it could be done, give Tesla fifty thousand dollars. After the success of Tesla, Edison said just opened a "American joke".
In 1886, Tesla's disagreement with Edison's scientific philosophy and his obstruction at the time of his resignation left Edison's company, and he created the "Tesla Electric and Electric Manufacturing Company" to begin researching AC, while Edison's company was Operated by direct current, so Tesla became Edison's biggest competitor.
In 1887, Edison founded the "Edison Gramophone Company", the use of phonograph technology profit, then the phonograph can record the sound on the wax tube, however, the wax is difficult to achieve mass production sales are limited, in order to improve the lack of Edison phonograph The company's rival, Columbia Records, designed and sold a more compact record, and produced faster than the wax tube.
In 1888, Edison began to study the "photo of the event", thanks to the continuous film technology produced at that time, Edison from the hands of George Eastman will buy back to the film, the laboratory assistant to study.
In 1889, in the machinery exhibition hall of the Paris Expo, the most popular is Edison's invention work stand, people in order to listen to the phonograph and row for a long time team, and incandescent lamp is also very prominent in the Expo, Edison To the French photographer Etienne Jules Ma Lei invented a continuous display of the device, as well as George Eastman invented a new type of photographic film, Edison on the use of visual retention phenomenon, began to study the film machine.
May 20, 1891, Edison for the first time in the laboratory display and public screening of the activities of the film projector technology, which is made using the phenomenon of visual retention.
Because AC is more suitable for long-distance transmission, more competitive than direct current, and more costly lower profits, Edison Electric Company gradually lost market share, the financial situation has deteriorated dramatically. In 1892, under the auspices of the US "financial giants" Morgan, Edison General Electric merged with Tom Johnson Electric Power Company, removing "Edison" and becoming "General Electric Company", Edison sadly out.
After the merger, Edison turned to mining, he spent money in New Jersey to buy thousands of acres of low-grade iron ore, invented a giant machine crushed ore. Edison uses a new beneficiation method, not only iron ore quality than the old-style machinery production is better, and the price is much lower. He is optimistic that no less than seven or eight years, you can produce an annual value of 10 million -12 million US dollars of ore, net profit of three million dollars.
Unfortunately, in 1898, Minnesota found a lot of iron ore, iron ore not only high grade, wide distribution, and can be open pit mining, low cost, iron ore prices steep one-third, so Edison You have to lose production, two million dollars of investment hit the water, 51-year-old Edison not only exhausted all the property, but also bear a lot of debt.
The mining business failed, Edison turned to the cement industry - he came from the mine limestone, the use of mining iron ore crushed ore crushed. Compared with other cement plants, Edison's cement plant is the most important feature than the full use of mechanical power plant, his cement factory high profits, 1905, the cement plant to become one of the five major cement plants, and Edison mining iron ore Under the debt of three years all the pay off.
The generator can provide enough power, but the generator is not easy to carry, which is its fly in the ointment, while the battery and generator are lighter than that, but only for a short time, so Edison is determined to develop a new battery. In 1900, Edison began to study the battery.
In 1902, Edison invented the "nickel-iron alkaline batteries", this battery is made of nickel, iron and alkaline solution, he used iron-nickel alkaline batteries for vehicle power test, each charge a power, travel up to 100 miles.
In 1903, Edison's company filmed the first film "train robbery" (also known as "train robbery").
In 1904, Edison began selling new batteries in Silver Lake, New Jersey, and soon the battery was put into production and sold well, but soon after the user found several serious problems with the battery - in the vehicle driving, the battery chemistry The liquid will flow out; many batteries also appeared in the power attenuation situation. So Edison immediately shut down the factory and cut off the battery, and look for the source of battery leakage.
In 1909, Edison finally developed a better performance of the battery.
On August 27, 1910, Edison announced to the public that the voice of the phonograph and the images on the film camera were one of the inventions.
In 1915, Edison won the Nobel Prize nomination for physics and the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
In January 1917, Edison was invited by the Minister of the Navy Joseph Joseph Daniels to study the planned and exploited inventions of the United States if he participated in the First World War. Thus, Edison entrusted his own affairs to his deputies and colleagues
In 1877, Edison found the telephone dial in the diaphragm with the sound will cause the phenomenon of vibration, then take the short needle for the test, from which a great inspiration. Speak the speed of the short and short can produce the corresponding different quiver. Then, in turn, this quiver will certainly be able to issue the original voice, so he began to study the issue of sound re-issued.
On August 15, Edison let the assistant make a "strange machine" consisting of a large cylinder, a crank, a telephone, and a membrane, and Edison took a foil and rolled it in a spiral The metal cylinder, so that the needle gently wiped the foil turn, the other end and the phone connected, and then Edison shake the crank, facing the phone to sing, then put the needle back to the original, and then shake the crank, then the machine back Release Edison's voice. In December, Edison publicly demonstrated this "tin foil box phonograph", a sensation around the world.
Contrary to the usual understanding of the people, the inventor of the original electric light was not Edison, and Edison improved the light. As early as 1801, a British chemist named Humphrey Dave in the laboratory with platinum wire power luminous; in 1810, he invented the use of two electric carbon rods between the arc and lighting Of the "candle", which is the earliest prototype of the light. Another British electrician engineer Joseph Swan after nearly 30 years of research, in December 1878 made a carbon wire powered light bulb.
The report about Swan's light bulb gave Edison a great inspiration. In October 1879, Edison finally succeeded in making carbon fiber as a filament incandescent bulb, called "carbonized cotton incandescent lamp", then a large number of production, and set up the company to set up power stations and power transmission and other infrastructure, So that the lights are widely used in the United States. During the period, he continued to improve the technology, and ultimately to determine the tungsten wire as a filament, called "tungsten light", and stereotypes use so far, Edison has thus become recognized as the inventor of the light.