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Virtual reality technology is an important direction of simulation technology. It is a collection of various technologies such as simulation technology and computer graphics, human interface technology, multimedia technology, sensor technology and network technology. It is a challenging cross technology frontier and research field The Virtual reality technology (VR) mainly includes simulation environment, perception, natural skills and sensing equipment and so on. The simulation environment is a computer generated, real-time dynamic three-dimensional realistic image. Perception refers to the ideal VR should have all the people have the perception. In addition to computer graphics technology generated by visual perception, there are auditory, tactile, force, movement and other perception, and even including the sense of smell and taste, also known as multi-perception. Natural skill refers to the person's head rotation, eyes, gestures, or other human behavior, by the computer to deal with the action of the participants to adapt to the data, and the user's input to make real-time response, and were fed back to the user's facial features The A sensing device is a three-dimensional interactive device.
VR art is a new and independent art category that comes with the advent of "virtual reality". In the article "Virtual Reality Art: Genesis Ultimate Re-creation", VR art has the following definition: Virtual reality (VR), enhanced reality (AR) and other artificial intelligence technology as a means of media to use the art form, we call it virtual reality art, referred to as VR art.The main feature of the art form is hypertext and interactivity. "
"VR as a comprehensive manifestation of modern technology, VR art is through the man-machine interface for visualization of complex data operations and interaction of a new form of art language, it attracts artists is important, is the art of thinking and technology tools closely And the deep penetration of the two generated by the new cognitive experience.Compared with the traditional window under the operation of the new media art, interactive and extended man-machine dialogue, VR art presents its unique advantages of the key from the overall sense Say, VR art is a new man-machine dialogue based on the interactive form of art, its biggest advantage lies in the construction of works and participants in the dialogue, through the dialogue to reveal the meaning of the process of generating.
Artists through the VR, AR and other technology applications, you can use a more natural means of human-computer interaction to control the form of works to create a more immersive art environment and reality can not achieve the dream, and to create the process to New meaning. If the interactive device system with VR nature can set the viewer through the multi-sensory interactive channel and the process of crossing the device, the artist can use the software and hardware to promote the smooth cooperation between the participants and the work of communication and feedback, to create a good participation And can be manipulated; can also be captured through the video interface to capture, store the behavior of the visitor fragment to keep the participants in the sense of enhancements based on the synchrotron to enhance the effect and re-shape, processed images; by enhancing the reality, Reality and other forms, the digital world and the real world together, the audience can control the projection through their own text, such as data gloves can provide force feedback, mobile scenes, 360-degree rotation of the sphere space not only enhanced the immersion of the work And can make the audience into the interior of the work, manipulate it, observe its process, and even give the audience the opportunity to participate in re-creation. "
Virtual reality is a combination of a variety of technologies, including real-time three-dimensional computer graphics technology, wide-angle (wide field) stereoscopic display technology, the observer head, eye and hand tracking technology, and tactile / force feedback, stereo, network transmission, voice Input and output technology. These techniques are described below.
Real-time three-dimensional computer graphics
By contrast, it is not too difficult to use a computer model to produce a graphic image. If there is enough accurate model, and there is enough time, we can generate accurate images of various objects under different lighting conditions, but the key here is real time. For example, in the flight simulation system, the image refresh is very important, while the image quality requirements are high, coupled with a very complex virtual environment, the problem becomes very difficult.
When people look around the world, because of the different positions of the two eyes, the image is slightly different, these images in the minds of integration, it formed a whole world around the world, this scene includes distance information The Of course, the distance information can also be obtained by other methods, such as the distance between the eyes of the distance, the size of the object comparison.
In the VR system, binocular stereoscopic vision played a significant role. The two images seen by the user's eyes are generated separately and displayed on different displays. Some systems use a single display, but the user to bring a special glasses, one eye can only see the odd frame image, the other eye can only see even frame images, odd, even between the different frames is parallax It produced a three-dimensional sense.
User (head, eye) tracking: In the artificial environment, each object relative to the system coordinate system has a position and attitude, and the user is also true. The user sees the scene by the user's position and the direction of the head (eye) to determine.
A virtual reality headset that tracks the head movement: In traditional computer graphics technology, the field of view changes through a mouse or keyboard, the user's visual system and motion-aware system are separate, and use the head tracking to change the image The perspective of the user's visual system and motion perception system can be linked between, feel more realistic. Another advantage is that users can not only through binocular stereoscopic vision to understand the environment, but also through the head of the movement to observe the environment.
In the interaction between the user and the computer, the keyboard and mouse are the most commonly used tools, but for the three-dimensional space, they are not suitable. In the three-dimensional space because there are six degrees of freedom, it is difficult to find a more intuitive way to map the plane movement of the mouse into three-dimensional space of any movement. Now, there are already some devices that can provide six degrees of freedom, such as 3Space digitizer and SpaceBall space ball. Some of the more well-behaved devices are data gloves and data clothing.
People can well determine the direction of the sound source. In the horizontal direction, we determine the direction of the sound by the difference in the phase difference and the intensity of the sound, since the time or distance at which the sound reaches the two ears is different. Common stereo effect is to listen to the left and right ears in different locations to record the different sounds to achieve, so there will be a sense of direction. In real life, when the head turns, the direction of the sound will change. But in the VR system, the direction of the sound and the user's head has nothing to do with the movement.
In a VR system, the user can see a virtual cup. You can try to catch it, but your hand does not really touch the feeling of the cup, and it is possible to pass through the virtual cup "surface", which in real life is impossible. A common device for solving this problem is to install some vibrable contacts on the inner layer of the glove to simulate tactile sensation.
In the VR system, the voice input and output is also very important. This requires that the virtual environment be able to understand the human language and interact with people in real time. It is quite difficult for a computer to recognize a person's voice because the speech signal and the natural language signal have their "multilaterality" and complexity. For example, there is no obvious pause between words and words in continuous voice, the same word, the same word by the words before and after the word, not only different people say that the same word will be different, that is, the same person will be subject to psychological, Physiological and environmental effects vary.
The use of human natural language as a computer input There are two problems, the first is the efficiency of the problem, in order to facilitate the computer to understand, enter the voice may be quite long-winded. Second is the correctness of the problem, the computer understands the voice of the method is to match the match, and no one's intelligence.